Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells proliferate uncontrollably and infiltrate the surrounding tissues. These cells can spread to other parts of the body via bodily fluids like the lymphatic system. Cancers are classified according to the organ or cell from which they originated. Cancer that develops in the lung, for example, is known as lung cancer, and cancer that develops in the skin's melanocytes is known as melanoma.

Cancer is classified into four types: A carcinoma is a cancer that begins on the outside of internal organs. Sarcoma is a cancer of the blood vessels, muscles, bone, cartilage, and fat. Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes abnormal blood cells to be produced. Cancers of the immune system include lymphoma and myeloma, as do cancers of the nervous system that grow in central nervous system cells.

Alcohol, unhealthy eating habits, lack of physical activity, air pollution, and emission of ultraviolet light. Radiation and Smoking are some cancer risk factors. Smoking causes cancer because it damages our DNA and the genes that protect us from cancer. Numerous chemicals, including benzene, which is found in tobacco, have been shown to alter DNA.

 As we age, two important processes promote cancer growth: the acquisition of modifications and the development of a cellular and molecular environment favorable to carcinogenesis.

Cancer develops when a cell's genetic material becomes corrupted; the corruption causes mutations that disrupt normal cell division and development. When this happens, the cell does not die. Instead, more cells are produced; the fundamental component of cancer is the accumulation of these extra cells into the tissue known as a tumour. Tumors are classified as benign or malignant. Non-cancerous benign tumours are limited to the site of origin. By infiltrating nearby tissues, malignant tumours can spread to other parts of the body. For example, not all cancers start with a tumour.

 Changes in skin color, lumps and bumps anywhere on the body, a persistent cough, bowel movements that are not regular, pain when swallowing, and unusual bleeding are all signs of cancer. Numerous measures have been taken by the government to reduce the health risks of smoking.

The following are some of the methods used to find early signs of the disease:

  • Endoscopy
  • Imaging
  • Cancer screening

Early detection increases the likelihood of a cure.

Treatment options include

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy.

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