DIPHTHERIA often spreads through the air. Fever, throat discomfort, and neck swelling are the symptoms. Breathing difficulties may develop in severe situations. It can result in heart failure and paralysis days after the infection. The majority of reported cases of diphtheria worldwide are in India.

Whooping cough, also known as PERTUSSIS, is an airborne illness. Coughing follows, and it lasts for 4-6 weeks. Extreme coughing fits can make it difficult to breathe and to eat or drink. All age groups are susceptible, with very young newborns suffering the most severe effects. It may result in mortality, pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

Contaminated wounds can lead to TETANUS, which can also develop in a newborn after risky delivery procedures. It is commonly referred to as "lockjaw" because it produces excruciating muscular spasms and the difficulty to swallow.

The DPT vaccination guards against tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough (pertussis).


DPT (Triple antigen), DPT/Hib (Quadrivalent), DPT/HBV/Hib (Pentavalent), and DPT/HBV/Hib/IPV (Hexavalent) are the combinations of these vaccinations that are available. Some vaccines intended for use in adults and children older than 7 years old combine a full dose of tetanus with a reduced dose of components for diphtheria and pertussis. These are, respectively, the Tdap and Td vaccines.


The hepatitis B vaccination can guard against the disease. Hepatitis B is a liver condition that can result in a short-lived, moderate sickness or a severe, chronic condition.

When blood, semen, or other bodily fluid containing the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not afflicted, hepatitis B is transmitted. People may get an infection by:

The majority of persons who receive the hepatitis B vaccination are permanently immune.

The standard dosage for the hepatitis B vaccination is 2, 3, or 4.

The following individuals are also advised to have the hepatitis B vaccine:

Hepatitis B vaccine can be administered as a standalone injection or as a component of a combination vaccination, which is a form of vaccine that contains multiple shots of different vaccines.

The hepatitis B vaccination may be administered concurrently with other shots.

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the virus that causes chickenpox, a particularly dangerous illness. It results in a rash that resembles blisters, itching, fatigue, and fever. In the past, chickenpox was quite prevalent in the India. About 4 million cases, 10,600 hospitalisations, and 100 to 150 fatalities each year were attributed to chickenpox.

About 90% of people may avoid getting chickenpox after receiving two doses of the vaccination. By being vaccinated, you defend both yourself and other members of your community. For individuals who cannot receive vaccinations, such as those with compromised immune systems or pregnant women, this is particularly crucial.

Even those who have had the chickenpox vaccination occasionally get the illness. But often, it is less severe, with fewer blisters and little to no fever. If you have concerns regarding the chickenpox vaccination, see a healthcare provider.

The CDC advises adults, adolescents, and children to receive two doses of the chickenpox vaccination. The vaccine should be administered to children twice, first between the ages of 4 and 6 years old and again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.

BCG TB Vaccine

A vaccination for tuberculosis (TB) is called Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In the US, this vaccination is not frequently utilised. However, in other nations where TB is widespread, it is frequently administered to babies and young children. BCG does not always shield individuals from contracting TB.

Recommended by BCG

Only those who satisfy particular requirements and in consultation with a TB expert are given the option of receiving BCG in the United States. If medical professionals have any queries regarding BCG vaccination for their patients, they should contact their state's or region's TB control programme.


Children who have had a negative TB test and are regularly exposed to germs should only be considered for the BCG vaccine if they cannot be segregated from adults who have the disease.

Health Professionals

Health care providers should be given the BCG vaccine individually in environments where

The dangers and advantages of both the BCG vaccine and the treatment of latent TB infection should be discussed with healthcare personnel who are considering becoming vaccinated against BCG.

TB Testing in BCG-Vaccinated Individuals

There are many Indians who were vaccinated against BCG who were born abroad.

A TB skin test may be administered to those who have already received the BCG vaccine to check for TB infection. A BCG vaccination may result in a positive TB skin test outcome. A BCG vaccine or an infection with the TB bacterium may be to blame for a positive result on a TB skin test.

Contrary to TB skin tests, TB blood tests (IGRAs) are unaffected by past BCG vaccination and are not anticipated to provide a false-positive result in BCG recipients.

The TB skin test is favoured over the TB blood test for children under the age of five.

Only the presence of the TB bacterium is revealed by a positive TB skin test or TB blood test. It cannot determine if a person has TB illness or a latent infection. To determine whether a person has TB illness, more tests are required, such as a chest x-ray and a sputum sample.

Today is designated as World Malaria Day. Every year on April 25, people throughout the world observe this day to appreciate the efforts being made to combat malaria. It is an opportunity to emphasise the requirement for ongoing financial support and political commitment to malaria prevention and control. During the 2007 World Health Assembly, WHO Member States established World Malaria Day. Time to deliver zero malaria: Invest, innovate, implement is the theme for this year. The parasites that cause malaria infect female Anopheles mosquitoes, which bite humans to spread the disease. It may be avoided and treated. High fever, chills, headaches, and other flu-like symptoms are among the signs of malaria.

Between 2015 and 2022, India saw a fall in malaria cases of almost 85.1% and a reduction in fatalities of 83.36 %. According to Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya, the Union Minister for Health, India was the only high-burden nation in Southeast Asia to record a decrease in malaria incidence in 2020 compared to 2019. This was mentioned by him yesterday in New Delhi during his virtual speech to the Asia Pacific Malaria Leaders Conclave 2023. According to Dr. Mandaviya, the nation is moving quickly towards its goal of eradicating malaria by 2030. Malaria, according to him, is not just a problem for public health, but also a social, economic, and political one that needs the support of all parties involved.

The Union Health Minister emphasised how India has become a global leader for its efforts to eradicate malaria. He continued by saying that the government's numerous health programmes, such as Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, Ayushman Bharat-Health and Wellness Centres, and Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, have a significant positive impact on India's ability to battle disease. In keeping with India's G20 Presidency motto of "One Earth, One Family, One Future," the Minister also stated that New Delhi is dedicated to share its resources, expertise, and lessons learned with other nations in their effort to eradicate malaria.

Over the years, the polio virus has left millions of children globally paralysed. A virus that dwells in the digestive system and throat is what causes polio. It is mostly transferred through coming into touch with an infected person's faeces (for example, when changing diapers).

Some kids with polio have no symptoms at all. Others experience cold-like symptoms, which can occasionally include neck, back, and limb discomfort and stiffness. Yet some children who have acute muscular discomfort within a week may become paralysed, or lose the ability to move their muscles. The legs of a kid are most affected by paralysis, but other muscles, particularly those that regulate respiration, might also be affected.

Polio may be characterised as a spinal, bulbar, or spine-bulbar illness depending on the paralysis locations. Maximum paralysis progresses quickly (in 2-4 days), is frequently accompanied by muscular discomfort and fever, and seldom lasts after the patient's temperature has returned to normal.

Asymmetrical and more severe proximally than distally, spinal paralysis is common. There are no or fewer deep tendon reflexes. Respiration and swallowing can be hampered by bulbar paralysis.

In 2% to 10% of cases, paralytic polio is deadly. After the initial event, many individuals regain at least some muscular function, and within six months of the commencement of paralytic signs, the prognosis for recovery can typically be determined.

There is no cure for polio, and some kids lose their lives to it. Poliomyelitis typically takes 6 to 20 days to incubate, however it can take anywhere from 3 and 35 days.

Two different kinds of Polio vaccine are available:

Both vaccines are highly effective against all three types of poliovirus. There are, however, significant differences in the way each vaccine works.

• OPV, oral polio vaccine

The oral polio vaccination (OPV) has two main effects: All three poliovirus types are immuned against by serum antibodies that are produced by OPV. In the case of an infection, this will shield the person from polio paralysis by stopping the virus's progress to the neurological system. The lining (also known as the "mucous membrane") of the intestines, which serves as the main location for poliovirus proliferation, is also subject to a local immune response brought on by OPV. The antibodies restrict the 'wild' (naturally occurring) virus' ability to reproduce inside the stomach, effectively preventing infection. The primary factor behind why mass vaccination campaigns with OPV may effectively halt the spread of wild poliovirus from person to person is likely the gut immune response to OPV.


The inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which must be administered intravenously, prevents the transmission of the poliovirus to the central nervous system by generating defense-enhancing antibodies in the blood (serum immunity). However, it only significantly lowers local polivirus immunity in the gut. It thereby offers personal defence against polio paralysis but, unlike OPV, is unable to stop the transmission of wild polio virus.

Inactivated polio vaccine benefits

Since the polio virus has been rendered inactive, IPV is not a "live" vaccine and there is no chance of developing vaccine-associated polio paralysis after receiving the shot. Most IPV patients experience an excellent immunological response following their IPV vaccination.


6 WEEKSOPV-1 + IPV-1 / OPV -1OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
10 WEEKSOPV-2 + IPV-2 / OPV-2OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
14 WEEKSOPV-3 + IPV-3 / OPV -3OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
15-18 MONTHSOPV-4 + IPV-B1 / OPV -4OPV alone if IPV cannot be given

The World Federation of Haemophilia (WHF) established World Haemophilia Day, a worldwide healthcare celebration held on April 17 each year, with the goal of urging local and national policymakers to improve access to treatment and care for people with haemophilia as well as to promote better control and prevention of the condition.

Haemophilia is a rare, severe genetic hemorrhagic illness that results from a malfunction of the proteins factor VIII and factor IX, which are necessary for blood clotting and coagulation and cause abnormal blood coagulation. Haemophilia can affect persons of any colour or ethnicity, but because it is linked to the X chromosome, men are more likely to be afflicted than women. A boy's chance of developing haemophilia is 50% higher if his mother has the condition, and that risk is equally 50% higher for her daughter. Therefore, even while haemophilia can affect females and cause problems during menstruation and delivery, it is more frequent in males.

The theme for World Haemophilia Day 2023 is "Access for All: Prevention of Bleeds as the Global Standard of Care," which is an appeal to local government officials and healthcare policymakers to emphasise the prevention, protection, and accessibility of effective treatment care for all haemophiliacs. In order to show support for the occasion, the World Federation of Haemophilia has asked well-known sites all around the world to glow red in honour of World Haemophilia Day.

Year-by-year themes for World Haemophilia Day:

World Haemophilia Day 2022 theme: Access for All: Partnership. Policy. Progress

World Haemophilia Day 2021 theme: Adapting to change: sustaining care in a new world

World Haemophilia Day 2020 theme: Get involved to carry the motive of the World Federation of Haemophilia - Treatment for all

World Haemophilia Day 2019 theme: Outreach and Identification

World Haemophilia Day 2018 theme: Sharing knowledge makes us stronger Only 25% of those affected had access to proper therapy in 2000, despite the fact

Every year in April 11 th, Dr. J. Parkinson's birthdate is celebrated as World Parkinson's Day. On this day, efforts are made to raise general consciousness of this terrible disease as well as the good deeds carried out by international organisations that are committed to preventing and curing this crippling illness.

An essay on the shaking palsy, written by the English physician and scholar Dr. James Parkinson, was first released in 1817. Even though these are supported, he reported a pattern of diminished muscular strength and involuntary trembling. He also mentioned how those who have this illness have a propensity to bend their bodies forward and unconsciously change their gait from walking to running as their senses and intelligence decline.

The condition wasn't assigned the term Parkinson's Disease until several decades later, in the 1870s. (sometimes called PD). Dr. Parkinson's study was taken up and continued by French neuroscientist Jean Martin Charcot, who later gave the illness his name.

In 1997, the first World Parkinson's Day was observed. The World Health Organization and the European Parkinson's Disease Association (EPDA) joined forces to launch it, with the goal of promoting support for and knowledge of study into the causes, treatments, and prevention of this illness. It is now recognised by the WHO as a holiday and is endorsed by the UN.

The red flower was made one of the well-known emblems of Parkinson's disease at the 9th World Parkinson's Disease Day at the Luxembourg Conference.

The history of the Red Tulip can be traced to Dutch gardener J.W.S. Van der Wereld, who was afflicted with Parkinson's disease. He had succeeded in creating a Red and White Tulip, which he dubbed in homage to the person who had given his illness that moniker. Following this, the Tulip was given the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Merit in London and later the Royal General Bulb Growers Trial Garden Award.

Without a question, World Parkinson's Day is a worthy cause, and today is the ideal time to support it. So let's get underway and celebrate this day now!

Autism is a developmental disease that usually manifests in the first three years of life and is a permanent neurological condition. Autism manifests as delays in three key areas of development: vocal and nonverbal speech, social relationships, and imagination, which can be seen in repetitive and constrained play or recreational activities. The trio of limitations is used to describe this.
These regions frequently take a while to grow, but more importantly, they do so in peculiar ways. Numerous people with autism have various methods of "sensing" the world. For instance, some people might prefer a strong grip to a firm touch. Others might find it challenging to trim their hair or clean their teeth. Some common noises will be challenging for many people to tolerate. Or, some people may have incredibly strong dietary preferences. Many people with autism may exhibit very odd behaviours and a typical method of connecting to people, items, and events in their surroundings because of these variations in speech, social interaction, imagination, and "sensing" their world. As a result, they are frequently misconstrued as being "disobedient" or "bad-behaving."
Because the severity of symptoms can vary from a mild cognitive and social disability to more complicated requirements with multiple problems and frequently very unusual behavior, autism is known as a "spectrum disorder." Deficits in quality are a consequence of autism. This implies that while abilities are present in an autistic person—they are not lacking—they do not mature as they should. As a result, distinct abilities mature at various rates in individuals with autism.
An additional trait of autism, and possibly its most perplexing aspect, is inconsistent skill development. The overall growth of a neuro-typical kid at age 4 would be comparable to that of a 4-year-old. However, a 4-year-old with autism may have verbal development similar to that of a 2-year-old, large motor skills similar to those of an 8-year-old, fine motor skills similar to those of a 6-year-old, and self-help skills similar to those of a 3-year-old. Therefore, a person might be able to perform simple math operations but be unable to talk; they might also be familiar with the letters, numbers, and baby songs but be unable to express their wants or needs. No two individuals on the autism range are alike in terms of appearance or behaviour due to all these traits.
Autism is not a condition that is unusual or unique. It is more prevalent than Down's syndrome and the third most prevalent genetic condition. Professionals are starting to recognise that some individuals who were given a mental retardation, hyperactivity, or poorly behaved kid diagnosis may actually have autism as a result of increased knowledge and consciousness levels.
Recent international surveys indicate that one in 68 individuals worldwide have autism, and the prevalence of autism is thought to be constant globally. (CDC, 2014). According to this, India has a population of over 18 million individuals who have autism. This implies that we have all encountered at least one autistic individual in our lifetimes, even though we were unaware that s/he was autistic.

Every year on March 30, World Bipolar Day is celebrated in honour of Dutch painter and one of the most significant figures in Western art history, Vincent van Gogh. His mental disease and inventiveness were correlated, and bipolar disorder was later identified as his illness. Bipolar illness has a significant impact on mood and can cause depressive and euphoric episodes, which can be detrimental to one's relationships, work, and health. Through worldwide cooperation, World Bipolar Day supports education about bipolar disorder and encourages its dissemination.

The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), in collaboration with the International Bipolar Foundation (IBPF) and the Asian Network of Bipolar Disorders, created World Bipolar Day. (ANBD).

The definition of bipolar illness goes back to ancient Greece and is not a contemporary problem. The medical writings of Hippocrates, a man who is frequently referred to as "the father of medicine," contain the oldest reference of the mental disorder. He published his research on melancholy and mania, two completely different emotions.

The 19th century saw the development of the contemporary conceptual grasp of bipolar illness.

Jules Baillarger, a French neurologist, and Jean-Pierre Falret, a French psychiatrist, each gave their own independent accounts of bipolar illness to the Académie de Médecine in Paris in 1854. Since the word "bipolar disorder" had not yet been developed, Baillarger and Falret referred to the condition as "folie à double forme," which is French for "dual-form insanity," and "folie circulaire," which is French for "circular insanity."

Since its founding in 1999, the International Bipolar Foundation (IBPF) has conducted study on bipolar illnesses and assisted those who are affected by them. We underestimate the prevalence of bipolar illnesses. While the affected individual is truly experiencing waves of mania or melancholy, extreme mood fluctuations often go undetected or are written off as temperamental problems. Because the condition has an effect on one's capacity to operate, people with this mental disease lead lives that are disrupted. Fortunately, therapy options include prescription drugs and in-depth counselling.

It is not simple to live with bipolar illness, but as Van Gogh himself said, "The beginning is perhaps more difficult than anything else, but keep heart, it will turn out all right."

Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes changes in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function. People with bipolar disorder experience intense emotional states that typically occur during distinct periods of days to weeks, called mood episodes. These mood episodes are categorized as manic/hypomanic (abnormally happy or irritable mood) or depressive (sad mood). People with bipolar disorder generally have periods of neutral mood as well. When treated, people with bipolar disorder can lead full and productive lives.

People without bipolar disorder experience mood fluctuations as well. However, these mood changes typically last hours rather than days. Also, these changes are not usually accompanied by the extreme degree of behavior change or difficulty with daily routines and social interactions that people with bipolar disorder demonstrate during mood episodes. Bipolar disorder can disrupt a person’s relationships with loved ones and cause difficulty in working or going to school.

Bipolar disorder commonly runs in families: 80 to 90 percent of individuals with bipolar disorder have a relative with bipolar disorder or depression. Environmental factors such as stress, sleep disruption, and drugs and alcohol may trigger mood episodes in vulnerable people. Though the specific causes of bipolar disorder within the brain are unclear, an imbalance of brain chemicals is believed to lead to dysregulated brain activity.

Bipolar disorder is a category that includes three different diagnoses: bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder.

Treatment and Management

Bipolar disorder symptoms commonly improve with treatment. Medication is the cornerstone of bipolar disorder treatment, though talk therapy (psychotherapy) can help many patients learn about their illness and adhere to medications, preventing future mood episodes.

Medications known as “mood stabilizers” are the most commonly prescribed type of medication for bipolar disorder. These medications are believed to correct imbalanced brain signaling. Because bipolar disorder is a chronic illness in which mood episodes typically recur, ongoing preventive treatment is recommended. Bipolar disorder treatment is individualized; people with bipolar disorder may need to try different medications before finding what works best for them.

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