The World Hepatitis Alliance reports:

Every year on 28 July, the globe comes together under the banner of globe Hepatitis Day (WHD) to raise awareness of the burden of viral hepatitis across the world and to effect lasting change. Our theme for this year is "We're not waiting." "Accelerate viral hepatitis elimination efforts now and the urgent need for testing and treatment for the real people who need it," reads the WHD 2023 call to action. Around the world, people and communities are bringing about change in their own lives and the environment. While praising them, we call for further action. WHD is one of only four disease-specific global awareness days that the World Health Organisation (WHO) has formally recognised. To raise awareness of viral hepatitis worldwide, WHD brings together patient organisations, governments, medical specialists, civil society, business, and the general public.

Why should we acknowledge World Hepatitis Day?

One of the main causes of death worldwide, viral hepatitis causes 1.34 million deaths annually, more than HIV/AIDS, TB, or malaria combined. 80% of liver cancer cases worldwide are caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses when they are combined.

Viral hepatitis is a really worldwide disease that can infect millions of people without their knowledge. It is not just present in one place or among one group of individuals.

90% of those with hepatitis B and 80% of those with hepatitis C do not now know their condition. Due to this, there is a significant chance that they may have deadly liver illness at some time in their life and, in some situations, unintentionally spread the infection to others.

The eradication of viral hepatitis is feasible because to the availability of effective hepatitis B vaccinations, treatments, and a cure, as well as a therapy for hepatitis C. However, increased knowledge of the illness, its hazards, and access to less expensive diagnostics and treatment are required. We are at a turning point in the fight against viral hepatitis thanks to the inclusion of the disease in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the recent approval of the first global hepatitis strategy. The need for political commitment is more than ever. Without prompt intervention, the number of fatalities and the spread of the disease would both increase.

The occasion provided by World Hepatitis Day is appropriate for raising awareness of viral hepatitis among the general public, in the media, and on the global health agenda. Viral hepatitis must be eradicated right away.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, commonly referred to as ERCP, is a highly sensitive endoscopy procedure used to treat symptoms related to a patient’s bile liver, gallbladder and pancreas—such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). The test involves gaining access ducts, which are channels inside organs that allow bodily fluids to travel throughout the body—primarily biliary ducts that channel fluid through the liver and pancreatic ducts that channel fluid through the pancreas.

During an ERCP procedure, the patient is kept under deep sedation, as the test lasts a longer time than other endoscopic tests and is quite sensitive. A long and flexible tubular device called an endoscope is passed through the patient’s mouth, down the esophagus and through the stomach until it reaches a segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract called the duodenum, which is the uppermost part of the patient’s small intestine. When the endoscope reaches this area, another plastic device called a catheter is guided through the endoscope and passed through a tiny duct between the liver and pancreas known as the papilla. The catheter is designed to inject a contrast solution into either the pancreas or the liver, which will make those ducts show up very brightly on x-rays and give doctors a clear view of how those organs are functioning. If the patient has pancreatitis, for instance, your doctor will be able to see it on the final x-ray image produced.

Is There Anything I Need to Do to Prepare for ERCP?

Fasting is required for at least 6 hours before undergoing ERCP. The goal is to empty the patient’s stomach so that food content does not obstruct the endoscope’s path or cause distortion during the x-ray. We with any medical procedure, also remember to inform your gastroenterologist (GI doctor) of any allergies you have (especially to sedation medication or contrast material used in prior imaging tests), any medications you are currently taking or any conditions or diseases you may have. Knowing this information will help you and your doctor to minimize risks of the procedure and to decide whether ERCP is the best endoscopy procedure for you.

What Happens After an ERCP Procedure?

Complications after a highly trained professional performs ERCP are pretty uncommon. In some cases, pancreatitis may develop after the ERCP procedure (about a 1% risk), in which case further treatment will need to be implemented. Other post-procedural complications include bleeding and infection. The most dangerous risk—although it is very rare—is perforation (tearing) of bodily tissue. Tearing would require invasive surgery in order to repair the damage and can sometimes lead to organ failure or death. In general, undergoing the procedure for diagnostic reasons is much safer than undergoing the procedure for therapeutic purposes, such as in the case that gallstones need removal.

After the test, you must have someone drive you home, as driving while the sedation medication is still in effect is very unsafe. Patients mostly feel bloated or cramping as a result of air entering the body during the procedure. These symptoms should pass within a few days. You can usually eat regularly after the procedure—but talk to your specific medical provider to be sure.

[cmsmasters_row data_width="boxed" data_padding_left="3" data_padding_right="3" data_top_style="default" data_bot_style="default" data_color="default" data_bg_position="top center" data_bg_repeat="no-repeat" data_bg_attachment="scroll" data_bg_size="cover" data_bg_parallax_ratio="0.5" data_padding_top="0" data_padding_bottom="50" data_padding_top_large="0" data_padding_bottom_large="0" data_padding_top_laptop="0" data_padding_bottom_laptop="0" data_padding_top_tablet="0" data_padding_bottom_tablet="0" data_padding_top_mobile_h="0" data_padding_bottom_mobile_h="0" data_padding_top_mobile_v="0" data_padding_bottom_mobile_v="0" data_shortcode_id="t62vjtch"][cmsmasters_column data_width="1/1" data_bg_position="top center" data_bg_repeat="no-repeat" data_bg_attachment="scroll" data_bg_size="cover" data_border_style="default" data_animation_delay="0" data_shortcode_id="3v5t0urwja"][cmsmasters_text shortcode_id="pcykgahubh" animation_delay="0"] Lupus or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a long-term life altering autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks the healthy tissue by creating auto antibodies. This disease can affect any organ of the body causing damage, pain and inflammation and due to its complex nature, lupus is sometimes known as the “disease of a thousand faces.”  It is a potentially fatal disease commonly seen in women between the ages of 15- 45 years. Lupus is still under-recognized and people are unaware about this condition. Causes- It is caused by a variety of factors such as: (i) Hormonal problem- women (15-45 years) experience lupus more often as compared to men due to higher estrogen level. (ii) Environmental factors: exposure to sunlight, stress, smoking, virus infection, medications. (iii) Family history: Family members with lupus have higher risks of this condition. Types of Lupus- There are different types of Lupus but Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is the most common among all.
  1. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: This type of lupus affects the skin. People experience skin issues like a sensitivity to the sun, rashes and hair loss.
  2. Drug-induced lupus: This is caused by certain medications. Symptoms are same as that of systemic lupus erythematosus, but it’s usually temporary.
  3. Neonatal lupus: A rare type of lupus, this is condition found in infants at birth. Children born with neonatal lupus have antibodies that were passed to them from their mother — who either had lupus at the time of the pregnancy or may have the condition later in life.
  1. Sensitivity to sunlight, rashes, hair loss
  2. shortness of breath, fever, headache
  3. chest pain, stomach pain, joint pain and muscles pain
  4. Fatigue, dry eyes and mouth sores
  5. Blood clots
  6. Seizures
Diagnosis and Treatment-
  1. Blood cell count and detection of biomarkers responsible for lupus.
  2. Urine examination for the lupus affecting kidneys.
  3. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test to find out the possibility of this autoimmune disorder.
  4. Tissue biopsy for skin.
  5. Medicines such as hydroxychloroquine, steroids, etc.
Prevention and Control-
  1. Prevent exposure to sunlight.
  2. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle- nutrient rich diet, regular exercise.
  3. Management of stress
  4. By quitting smoking as smoking increases the risk of lupus.
  5. Take preventive medicines in case of emergency.

There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly. They are:

Vitamins are grouped into two categories:

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat.

There are nine water-soluble vitamins. They are not stored in the body. Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine. Although, the body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins, they have to be taken on a regular basis to prevent shortage in the body. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.


Each of the vitamins listed below has an important job in the body. A vitamin deficiency occurs when you do not get enough of a certain vitamin. Vitamin deficiency can cause health problems.

Not eating enough fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, whole grains and fortified dairy foods may increase your risk for health problems, including heart disease, cancer, and poor bone health (osteoporosis).

Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin.

Vitamin B6 is also called pyridoxine. Vitamin B6 helps form red blood cells and maintain brain function. This vitamin also plays an important role in the proteins that are part of many chemical reactions in the body. The more protein you eat the more pyridoxine your body requires.

Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It also helps form red blood cells and maintain the central nervous system.

Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums. It helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue. It is also essential for wound healing.

Vitamin D is also known as the "sunshine vitamin," since it is made by the body after being in the sun. Ten to 15 minutes of sunshine 3 times a week is enough to produce the body's requirement of vitamin D for most people at most latitudes. People who do not live in sunny places may not make enough vitamin D. It is very hard to get enough vitamin D from food sources alone. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. You need calcium for the normal development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones. It also helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant also known as tocopherol. It helps the body form red blood cells and use vitamin K.

Vitamin K is needed because without it, blood would not stick together (coagulate). Some studies suggest that it is important for bone health.

Biotin is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol.

Niacin is a B vitamin that helps maintain healthy skin and nerves. It also has cholesterol-lowering effects at higher doses.

Folate works with vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells. It is needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function. Any woman who is pregnant should be sure to get enough folate. Low levels of folate are linked to birth defects such as spina bifida. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid.

Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food. It also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins. It is important for body growth and the production of red blood cells.

Thiamine (vitamin B1) helps the body cells change carbohydrates into energy. Getting enough carbohydrates is very important during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is also essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells.

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What Is Antigen

An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response. They may be proteins, polysaccharides, lipids or nucleic acids. Each antigen has distinct surface features that are recognized by the immune system.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has several known antigens, including its nucleocapsid phosphoprotein and spike glycoprotein, which are the visible protrusions on its surface.

An antibody is a Y-shaped protein produced by B cells of the immune system in response to exposure to antigens. The tip of each Y-shaped arm contains antigen binding sites (paratopes) that bind to a specific portion of the antigen’s surface (epitope). This binding helps to eliminate antigens from the body, either by direct neutralisation or by “tagging” them for elimination by other arms of the immune system.

When infected with SARS-CoV-2, the body produces antibodies that bind specifically to the spike proteins and other antigens to help eliminate the virus. This binding can be harnessed to develop antibody and antigen-based diagnostic tests.

What are antigen tests and what can they tell us?

An antigen test reveals if a person is  currently  infected with a pathogen such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Once the infection has gone, the antigen disappears.

Unlike nucleic acid-based tests such as PCR, which detect the presence of genetic material, antigen tests detect proteins or glycans, such as the spike proteins found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

They can take longer to develop than molecular and antibody tests, as suitable antibodies for use in the assays must first be identified and produced, which can be a complex and time-consuming process. Accuracy can also be a problem, with antigen tests typically having a much lower sensitivity than PCR.

However, they usually provide test results rapidly, are relatively cheap, and can be more amenable to point-of-care use, which could make them more suitable for testing in the community and in remote regions.

How antigen testing works

Antigen tests seek out specific proteins only found in the virus, which the body’s immune response recognizes as 'foreign'. Most COVID-19 antigen tests target the 'spike protein' that studs the surface of the coronavirus.

A swab from the nose is collected for this test, where there's a high likelihood of virus particles being present. The swab is then dipped in a solution that inactivates the virus and then transferred onto a test strip. The test strip houses antibodies that bind to coronavirus proteins and hold them in place as the fluid spreads.

If the sample is positive for coronavirus, colored lines will show up on the paper strip in 15-20 minutes.


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