Diabetes Mellitus or Type II Diabetes or NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is the condition which exhibits hyperglycemia (a condition where there is excess blood sugar levels).
The reason of the high blood sugar can be attributed to either of the two or both conditions. First, the Pancreas does not produce sufficient Insulin. Insulin acts as a carrier of Glucose into the cells of the body. Therefore if there is insufficient insulin levels in the blood, it wont be able to transport the glucose from the blood into the cells of the body.
The food that we eat, is finally converted to energy in the form of glucose and it is the food for each and every cell. If the cells do not receive the sufficient amount of glucose, it will start to starve.
Another reason for hyperglycemia is that, the insulin receptors on the cells get damaged or the structure changes such that, even though there is sufficient insulin levels in the blood, it cannot help transport the glucose into the cells of the body. In this case, over a long period of time, the cells of the body pass messages to the pancreas to secrete more insulin because it feels that it is not getting the glucose supply because of lack of Insulin. Therefore in such conditions, there is an elevated level of Blood Glucose (Hyperglycemia) and also elevated levels of Blood Insulin (Hyperinsulinemia).
So now we got to know what causes Diabetes. Now let us look at the subtle signs and symptoms that the body gives while suffering from Diabetes and it is highly warranted that when you are suffering from one or more of these symptoms, you should immediately get your blood sugar levels checked.
As discussed before, in Diabetes, the Glucose from the blood does not reach the cells of the body. So when the cell is deprived of the food, what will happen, it will get weak. Therefore the early symptoms of diabetes is unexplained weight loss and also chronic fatigue. You may get tired very soon and always feel like taking a short nap or sleep.
The other symptoms include,
Polyuria (you will have frequent urge of urination).
Polydipsia (frequent Thirst)
Polyphagia (Too much hunger)
Wound will take a longer time to heal. Generally small cuts and bruises will also take much longer time than usual to heal. This is a warning sign of elevated blood sugar levels.