It is a flexible, tube-like instrument known as an endoscope which is used in the minimally invasive treatment known as Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) to remove precancerous and cancerous regions from the Gastro Intestinal (GI) tract. The term "submucosal" refers to the procedure's focus on tumors that are under the GI tract's lining (mucosa). These tumors may be near to muscular tissue and may be challenging to totally remove using normal techniques.
This operation is carried out by gastroenterologists and medical professionals specially expertise to treat the GI system. The doctor will put the endoscope through the mouth for upper GI tumors or through the anus for lower GI tumors depending on where in the GI tract the tumor is placed. Most people recover from ESD as an outpatient surgery and return home the following day. This procedure requires a high precision and accuracy to perform and it is not easily available at any hospital across the country.
Who needs Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)?
The following cancers and lesions that affect the submucosa, the region between the lining of internal organs and the muscle wall can be treated with the ESD procedure:
1. Esophageal Barrett's disease
2. Cancerous tumors or colon polyps in the early stages, such as colorectal, stomach, or esophageal cancer.
3. Esophageal, stomach, or colon tumors that have not yet spread to the GI wall's deeper layer.
For the removal of some growths, particularly those without distinct borders or those that are too large to be removed in one piece by conventional procedures, ESD may be a more effective choice than endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). In these situations, ESD can reduce the danger of the tumor spreading.
In order to provide better therapy, ESD can also assist the doctor in staging the GI cancer (by identifying its spread).
How is Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) done?
It is usually done by the gastroenterologist. Before the surgery, the patient is supposed to: