Through coronary artery bypass surgery, a cardiac artery that is completely or partially clogged is circumvented. A healthy blood vessel is removed during surgery from the leg or chest region. The vessel is joined below the heart artery blockage. The new route enhances the flow of blood to the heart muscle.


These procedures have additional names:

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting.
  • CABG pronounced "cabbage."
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
  • Heart bypass surgery.

The cardiac condition that led to the blockage, such as atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease, is not treated by coronary artery bypass surgery. However, it can lessen signs like shortness of breath and chest discomfort. The procedure, referred to as CABG, may lower the chance of mortality from cardiac disease.

Why it is done?

Restoration of blood flow around a blocked heart artery is accomplished by coronary artery bypass surgery. If other initial therapies for a heart attack are unsuccessful, surgery may be performed as an emergency therapy.


If you have any of the following conditions, your doctor may advise coronary artery bypass surgery:

  • A restriction in the left major cardiac artery. This artery provides the heart muscle with a lot of blood.
  • Main heart artery severely narrowed.
  • Severe chest discomfort resulting from the constricting of numerous cardiac arteries. Even during mild exertion or while the heart is at rest, the constriction lowers blood flow to the heart.
  • Your lower left heart chamber is dysfunctional and you have more than one damaged cardiac artery.
  • A cardiac artery blockage unresponsive to coronary angioplasty. This less invasive procedure widens the artery using a balloon on the end of a small tube known as a catheter. Usually, the artery is kept open with the use of a tiny coil known as a stent.
  • A failed angioplasty, whether one used a stent or not. For instance, following stenting, an artery narrowed once again.


Open heart surgery, or coronary artery bypass, is performed. Every surgery carries some risk. The following are potential side effects of coronary artery bypass surgery:

  • Bleeding.
  • Death.
  • Following surgery, a heart attack brought on by a blood clot.
  • Infection at the chest wound site.
  • Long-term requirement for a breathing apparatus.
  • Arrhythmias are irregular heartbeats.
  • Kidney issues.
  • Memory loss or difficulty thinking coherently, which is frequently transient.
  • Stroke.

If the operation is performed as an emergency procedure, there is a greater chance of complications.

Your general health at the time of operation will also affect your individual risk of problems following coronary artery bypass surgery. The risk of problems is higher in those who have the following medical conditions:

  • Arteries in the legs are blocked.
  • Pulmonary illness with chronic obstruction (COPD).
  • Diabetes.
  • Kidney illness.

In order to lower the chance of problems, medications are frequently administered prior to surgery to manage bleeding, blood pressure, and infection. You can be given medication to regulate your blood sugar during surgery if you have diabetes.

How you prepare?

You might need to adjust your routines, nutrition, and medications prior to coronary artery bypass surgery. You receive detailed instructions from your healthcare practitioner.


Make arrangements for a ride home from the hospital. Plan to have assistance at home while you're recovering as well.

Before the procedure

When having coronary artery bypass surgery, you are often admitted to the hospital the morning before the procedure. In the days and hours leading up to surgery, you have a number of blood and cardiac tests.

During the procedure

Coronary artery bypass surgery is major surgery that's done in a hospital. Doctors trained in heart surgery, called cardiovascular surgeons, do the surgery. Heart doctors, called cardiologists, and a team of other providers help care for you.


Before you go into the operating room, a health care provider inserts an IV into your forearm or hand and gives you medicine called a sedative to help you relax.


When you are in the operating room, you can expect these things:


Anesthetics: You receive a combination of medicines through the IV and a face mask. These medicines put you in a pain-free, sleep-like state. This is called general anesthesia.


Breathing machine: A care provider inserts a breathing tube into your mouth. This tube attaches to a breathing machine called a ventilator. The machine breathes for you during and immediately after the surgery.


Heart-lung machine: During surgery, a heart-lung machine keeps blood and oxygen flowing through your body. This is called on-pump coronary bypass.


An average coronary artery bypass procedure lasts between three and six hours. The number of clogged arteries determines how long the procedure takes.


A lengthy cut along the breastbone is normally made by a surgeon down the middle of the chest. To expose the heart, the surgeon spreads wide the rib cage. The heart is briefly halted by medication once the chest is opened. On is the heart-lung machine.


The surgeon cuts off a portion of a healthy blood artery, frequently from the lower thigh or the chest wall. Graft is the name given to this section of healthy tissue. Below the obstructed cardiac artery, the surgeon sutures the graft's ends together. By doing this, blood is given a new route to get through a barrier. During coronary artery bypass surgery, more than one transplant may be utilised.


The following are some variants on coronary artery bypass surgery:


Beating-heart surgery or off-pump surgery: In some cases, coronary artery bypass surgery is performed without the assistance of a heart-lung machine. Instead, the beating heart is the site of the procedure. The particular region of the heart being operated on is stabilised using specialised equipment. As the remainder of the heart is still beating, this kind of operation might be difficult. Not everyone can choose to do it.


Operation that is not too intrusive. Small incisions are made in the chest by a cardiac surgeon during the procedure. The use of robotics and visual imaging aids the surgeon in working in confined spaces. Port-access or keyhole surgery are two terms used to describe minimally invasive cardiac surgery.


Following the procedure, the medical staff restarts your heartbeat in the operating room and turns off the heart-lung machine. The chest bone is closed by the surgeon using wire. After the bone heals, the wire remains within your body.

After the procedure

A group of medical professionals will check on you following coronary artery bypass surgery to ensure that you are as comfortable as possible. When you wake up, you can feel achy and disoriented. Typically, you may anticipate the following:


Breathing apparatus: Until you wake up and can breathe on your own, the breathing tube remains in your throat.


Inpatient care: Spend one to two days in the critical care unit of the hospital. Depending on how you heal and whether you experience problems, the total time of your hospital stay will vary. Following coronary artery bypass surgery, several patients return home after only a week.


Checks on respiration and heart rate: Following surgery, your medical team keeps a careful eye on you to look for problems. Your heartbeat and breathing are captured by machines. Your temperature is checked often.


Medicines: You receive medications intravenously (IV) to treat pain and avoid problems like blood clots. Your healthcare professional could advise you to start taking an aspirin every day if you don't already. You might have to take aspirin daily for the rest of your life. Regarding who benefits from aspirin medication, there are precise medical guidelines. Inform your doctor about your usage of aspirin.


Rehabilitation for the heart: This supervised programme of education, counseling, and exercise often referred to as cardiac rehab helps patients with improved heart health following heart surgery. While you're still in the hospital, you'll be urged to begin moving and walking. Up until you can safely follow a home program, you continue your cardiac rehab programme at a hospital after you return home.


You need to keep an eye out for problems' signs after surgery and while you're recovering at home. If any of the following apply to you:

  • Fever.
  • Quick heartbeat.
  • Your chest injury is now causing you new or severe discomfort.
  • The area surrounding your chest wound changing in colour.
  • Fluid coming from your chest wound, including bleeding.

Following coronary artery bypass surgery, recovery typically takes 6 to 12 weeks. You can normally drive, go back to work or the gym, and start having sexual relations after 4 to 6 weeks with your doctor's OK. But everyone's recovery is unique. For advice, see your health care practitioner.


Most individuals feel better after recuperating from coronary artery bypass surgery. Some people have long periods of symptom-free living. However, in the future, the graft or other arteries can block up. If this occurs, you could require a further operation or treatment.


How effectively you manage chronic illnesses like diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol will determine your outcomes and long-term prognosis. It's crucial to take your medications exactly as prescribed.


By altering your lifestyle, you may control and even enhance your heart health. Try the suggestions below:

  • Avoid smoking: Smoking, particularly atherosclerosis, increases the risk of heart disease. The greatest method to lower your risk of heart disease and its consequences is to stop smoking. Ask your physician for assistance if you need it.
  • Eat nutritious foods: Pick a lot of whole grains, fruits, and veggies. Cut back on salt, sugar, and saturated fats.
  • Control your weight: heart disease risk is increased by being overweight. Find out from your doctor what is a healthy weight for you.
  • Exercise: Diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure are all risk factors for heart disease that can be managed with regular exercise. Aim for 30 to 60 minutes of physical exercise on most days of the week with your doctor's approval. Your healthcare professional will advise you when it's okay to resume exercising after coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Stress management: Look for strategies to lessen emotional stress. It could be beneficial to engage in mindfulness exercises and socialise with others in support groups. Consult your healthcare practitioner about coping mechanisms if you suffer from depression or anxiety.

Take a decent nap: The risk of heart disease and other chronic diseases may rise as a result of poor sleep. Adults should try to sleep 7 to 9 hours per night.

4 Inches Cut Heart Bypass at B.P. Poddar Hospital

We are among the pioneers when it comes to minimally invasive cardiac surgery, 4 Inches Cut Heart Bypass being one of them. We have a dedicated team of CTVS and CTVS OT. In terms of the financial aspects, apart from cash, we are accepting all major insurance/TPA, all major corporates and Swasthya Sathi

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